12 Visual Phenomena & Optical Illusion

 Müller-Lyer Illusion: Consists of lines with arrowheads at both ends. Even though the lines are the same length, one appears longer due to the direction of the arrowheads.2. 

Kanizsa Triangle: Involves the perception of a white triangle that isn't actually there. It's created by three black Pac-Man-like shapes arranged in a way that suggests the presence of a triangle.

 Hermann Grid Illusion: A grid with black squares at the intersections. Gray patches appear at the white intersections when staring at a single point due to lateral inhibition in the visual system.

 Ambiguous Figures (e.g., Rubin's Vase): Images that can be interpreted in multiple ways. Rubin's Vase, for example, can be seen as either a vase or two faces in profile.

Motion Aftereffect (MAE): Also known as the waterfall illusion. Staring at a moving stimulus for an extended period can result in stationary objects appearing to move in the opposite direction afterward.

Necker Cube: A wireframe drawing of a cube that can be perceived as rotating in different directions, despite being static.

 Rotating Snakes: Static images that give the illusion of movement, with different parts of the pattern appearing to rotate continuously.

 The Ponzo Illusion: Two identical lines appear different in length due to the presence of converging lines that create a sense of depth.

The Zöllner Illusion: Consists of parallel lines intersected by diagonal lines. The parallel lines appear skewed or crooked due to the intersecting lines.

The Café Wall Illusion: Horizontal rows of alternating light and dark bricks appear to be sloping, but they are actually parallel.

The Floating/Flickering Grid Illusion: A grid of white squares on a black background. When the image is looked at, gray blobs appear to float at the intersections, disappearing when fixated upon.

 The Ames Room: A distorted room that creates an optical illusion of depth, making people appear much larger or smaller than others when they switch positions within it.

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